Aggregated Model
An assembly of ContributorsModels for a specified phase of the building’s life cycle.
Analysis Cycle
The cycle comprising of Model upload, aggregation, analysis, curation, reporting, prioritisation and review.
Analysis Obligations
  1. Models must be uploaded by the agreed time.
  2. The Lead Designer will set the priority of issues.
  3. Contributors will work to minimise the time between a resolution being found and being implemented into the Model.
  4. The Issue Resolution Workshop will be attended by the Design Lead and Model Lead relevant to the Analysis Scope.
  5. The Lead Designer will set the Analysis Scope for the subsequent Analysis Cycle.
  6. The Contributor assigned to an issue will update the Issue Management System to report progress.
Analysis Scope
Outlines which Elements of a Model will be analysed.
A Participant who will be in receipt of Models and/or data for the Reliant Use(s).
BIM Brief
The components of the BIM Strategy that are instructed by the Client.
BIM Scope
The components of the BIM Strategy that are collaboratively developed by the Contributors as a response to the BIM Brief.
BIM Strategy
A combination of the Brief and the Scope developed for use by the Contributors. The strategy provides a basis for achieving the Client’s objectives in a consistent and structured manner.
Building Information Modelling (BIM)
A collaborative and transparent process to produce, communicate, and analyse built for purpose Models. These Models make up a project assembly that contains the relevant geometry and data for the appropriate phase of the building’s life cycle, as outlined within the BIM Strategy.
Clash Analysis
A process to identify the geometric clashes in the Analysis Scope.
A Participant who contributes Models and/or data to the BIM process.
Data Analysis
A process to check if the required attributes are populated with the correct nomenclature as specified in the Contributors’ data directories. (Data Analysis does not validate whether the content of the attribute fields are correct.)
Data Scope
The attribute requirements (fields and directories) for Elements in the Contributor's Model.
Design Lead
The Participant’s representative who is responsible for the day-to-day design and is responsible for validating their Model Scope. This individual must understand their fee, resourcing, design responsibility and the Reliant Use(s) of their Models. The relevant Design Lead will need to be present at the Issue Resolution Workshops.
A system, assembly, component or zone which fulfils a function of the construction entity.
Element Class
Defines whether an Element is a system, assembly, component.
Element Scope
The Elements required to be modelled in the Contributor's Models
Issue Management
The tracking and reporting of issue priority, status and allocation.
Issue Management System
A software to support Issue Management, allowing for the tracking and reporting of issue priority, status and allocation.
Issue Resolution Workshop
A collaborative session covering issues resulting from analysis where the priority, status and allocation of issues are discussed and set.
Level of Detail (LOD)
Defines the representation of the three dimensional geometry of an Element. (The LOD does not imply a Data Scope to be attributed to the Element. Reliant Use(s) of a Model cannot be inferred from the LOD of its Elements.)
D1 – Represents the volumetric extent of the Element

D2 – Represents all the external surfaces of the Element
D3 – Represents all the external and internal surfaces of the Element

A permit to use a Model(s) for a particular Reliant Use(s) or Non-reliant Use(s).
Level of Granularity (LOG)
Defines the number of sub-elements representing the parent Element Class. (When applying a LOG to an element it only relates to the generation immediately preceding or following its tier.)
G1 – Represents the Element as a single entity
G2 – Represents the Elements that need to be inspected, maintained and/or replaced individually within the parent Element by the Operations Manager.

G3 – Represents all the Elements that are required to assemble the parent Element
Location & Orientation
Outlines where the physical location of the project is transposed to in model space and specifies the orientation.
Logistics Analysis
A process to identify and simulate, in space and time, the particular order, path and movement of Elements.
The Participant on the project who is responsible for the leadership, execution and delivery of the BIM process.
Master Volumetric Scope
All the zones that make up the volumetric totality of the project.
The three-dimensional geometry and attribute data representing a Contributor's Model Scope.
Model Fidelity
The degree of exactness with which Elements are modelled with regards to their intended interface, location and orientation. (Level of Detail (LOD) is irrelevant)
Model Lead
The Participant’s representative who is modelling on the project and is responsible for the Model Fidelity of a particular Model Scope.  This individual must anticipate the time required to implement change. The relevant Model Lead will need to be present at the Issue Resolution Workshops. (This is not to be confused with the organisation's BIM advisor.)
Model Scope
Outlines where and what the Contributors are modelling and consists of Volumetric ScopeElement Scope and Data Scope. (Model Scopes are developed specifically for their Reliant Use(s).
Modelling Criteria
The principle or standard by which a Model is to be developed. (Models are developed in the most efficient way to meet their Reliant Use(s) which may not be suitable for other uses of the Model).
Modelling Obligations
  1. Contributors will concurrently develop the design and Model as an iterative process.
  2. Contributors will ensure that any Element within a Model which is illustrated on drawings will be derived from the Model.
  3. Contributors will ensure Model Fidelity.
  4. Contributors will ensure that the attribute data applied to Elements is correct.
Non-reliant Use

Any use for a Model Scope other than the Reliant Use(s); for which the model author is not held liable.

A Beneficiary, Contributor or Manager partaking in the BIM process.
A temporary representation of an Element by a Placeholder Author that will be superseded in time by the Primary Author's Element.
Placeholder Analysis
An interdisciplinary comparison between an Element and the corresponding Placeholder Element in terms of geometry, location and orientation.
Placeholder Author
A Contributor who is responsible for the modelling of a Placeholder Element until superseded by the Primary Author's Element.
Primary Author
A Contributor who is responsible for the creation and validity of an Element’s geometry and data as defined in the Model Scope.
Record Model
The three-dimensional geometry and attribute data representing a Contributor’s Model Scope issued at the completion of construction and reflecting changes made during the Construction Phase.
Reliant Use
A use for which a Model Scope is specifically developed and validated, and for which the model author is liable. (Models are developed in the most efficient way for their Reliant Uses which may not be suitable for other uses of the Model).
Strategy Obligations
  1. All Participants are to appoint a Design Lead and a Model Lead as key points of contact. (Notify GRFN if these individuals change)
  2. Design Leads and a Model Leads will be available for the development of the BIM Scope.
  3. BIM Scope will be defined with an understanding of the time and resource implications of the Modelling Obligations and Analysis Obligations.
Sequence Analysis

A process to identify and simulate, in space and time, the particular order in which Elements follow each other.

Volumetric Scope
An agreed three-dimensional zone(s) representing the modelling extent of a Contributor's Model.


GRFN is a Management Consulting firm based in Central London specialising in building information modelling. The focus of our work is to help clients mitigate risk and drive efficiencies through people, process and technology.


Strategy is integral to achieving any objective and should address technology, process and people. Implementation needs to incorporate analysis, education and management, whether at organisational level or project level. We strive for optimum granularity to allow us to align, and therefore identify, the limiting factors to our clients achieving their goals.
Advocating a systematically ruthless approach, we bring structure, always reassessing the critical path and highlighting issues to the Project Team. Utilising agile processes to analyse both geometry and data, we present a transparent understanding of the state of the project, providing a foundation for informed decisions.
With the success of the project at the forefront of our minds we bring substantial value through our people skills, knowledge and experience. We strive to be facilitators, instrumental in accelerating the fusion of people and process, while guiding the team to overcome impediments to project delivery.
The aptitude and willingness of the Project Team is key. We want to convert the willing into the able, recognising that people’s abilities to be flexible and to collaborate are intrinsic to the success of a project. Through education, the mindsets of a team are aligned and the project vision brought into focus.


Building Phase
Appointment Guidance
Bid Strategy
BIM Brief
BIM Scope
Capability Statements
Handover Requirement
Implementation Strategy
Pre-Qualification Questionnaire
Procurement Strategy
Request For Proposal
Resource Planning
Staffing Strategy
Strategic Guidance
Technology Strategy
Tender Information


Building Phase
Clash Analysis
Data Analysis
Data Mapping
Digital Snagging
Discovery & Assessment
Logistics Analysis
Placeholder Analysis
Sequence Analysis
Strategy Analysis


Building Phase
Data Management
Issue Management
Model Management
Performance Management
Project Management
Tender Support


Building Phase
Management Training
Process Education
Technology Training


Good people are willing
People who are open minded and ready to act enable success
Good people are able
People should demonstrate skill, diligence and aptitude for their required task
Good people communicate
People need to share progress and ideas for efficient development
Good people are essential
When striving to achieve success, everything is secondary to having the right team
Good process is innovative
Today’s advanced practices become tomorrow’s standards
Good process is lucid
Processes which are coherent and easy to understand allow for quick and simple adoption
Good process is agile
Processes which are scalable and adaptable suit the dynamism of real projects
Good process is as little process as possible
Concentrating on the critical path drives focus within a team and provides clarity
Good technology is accessible
Technology should allow easy retrieval of information within budget and capability, regardless of location
Good technology is intuitive
Using technology should be instinctive, allowing one to learn naturally
Good technology is interoperable
Technology should facilitate rather than hinder the sharing of information
Good technology is discreet
Technology should be unobtrusive within the methods of achieving one's goal


The West Wing, Somerset House
Strand, London WC2R 1LA

+44 (0)20 7257 9470

The entrance to the West Wing reception is located at the north end of the West Wing.
Business Enquiries 
We provide a high quality service and only work where we can bring value. To engage our services or discuss your project or organisation please do not hesitate to get in touch. We are always refining our approach and collaborating with others to innovate further.
Career Enquiries 
We invest in the right people, appreciating that a team’s strength is dependant on the combination of individuals within it. We want those who share our values and possess the traits we believe are necessary to provide a high value service. Please send your CV to